Stages of Prostrate Cancer Symptoms and Prognosis

Prostate cancer is the malignancy of the prostate gland, which occurs when the cells of the organ begin to mutate and multiply rapidly. It is one of the most common forms of cancer in the United States. It is responsible for the second highest number of cancer deaths amongst American men. The risk factors include- age, diet, lifestyle, genetics, medication. One in six men will be diagnosed with the disease during the course of their lives; three hundred thousand diagnoses will occur in this year alone; and close to thirty thousand fatalities will be recorded.

Stage 1 prostate cancer – Cells begin to mutate; zero symptoms, no way of detecting the disease without the professional aid. Even a medical specialist will have to make use of special tests and equipments in order to determine that the patient has this cancer. Once the disease is diagnosed and it is indeed in the early stage, prognosis is good with immediate treatment, usually hormone treatment or surgery. Other treatments that may be employed include brachtherapy and transurethral resection; doctors expect as much as ten year cancer-free existence for the patient; if the disease appears to be developing at a slow rate, they may offer watchful waiting to see if the patient might die before the symptoms start to show up.

Stage 2 prostate cancer – Cells begin to multiply characterized by enlarge prostate and obstruction of urethra. Usually the first symptoms begin to appear: pain in urination, pain during intercourse, bloody urine and semen. This stage of the disease can be treated by combination hormone treatment, radiation therapy, and surgery. Depending on the merits of the case, the doctor may decide to work with other remedies.

State 3 or level c prostate cancer – Mutated cells begin to multiply rapidly and metastasize to the lymph nodes and the bones of the back, femur, hips and pelvis, and the ribs. At this point, just about every known treatment may be necessary to hold the disease in check ? chemotherapy and hormone treatment, radiotherapy and surgery; anything to force the cancer cells to shrink to more manageable sizes. There are no guarantees whatsoever, but the tumors can be caught and contained with a little luck. Prognosis expects the disease to relapse, so close watch will be kept on the patient.

Stage 4 or metastatic prostate cancer – Not good. At this point the melanoma is growing and spreading at a rate that can no longer be controlled so that treatment may slow the progress of the disease but may not necessarily stop it. Physicians typically believe that the best remedy in this instance is palliative care, in which they make the patient comfortable with painkillers and drugs that help to manage the symptoms, and ensure that his passing is not a tortuous one. Symptoms include a great deal of pain, and fecal and urinary incontinence.

Techniques used in prostate cancer diagnosis include DRE (direct rectal examination), the PSA (prostate specific antigen) test, and the prostate biopsy. Other techniques help in staging the disease so as to decide on best treatment.

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