It’s unfortunate that after treating prostate cancer in some men, the tumor may begin to grow again after a few years. This type of cancer may rely on androgen receptor activation in the body to grow.
Moreover, it may become impossible and useless to treat this with by inhibiting or blocking the male reproductive related hormone — testosterone or androgen.
When prostate cancer no longer depends on hormone treatment it is usually referred to as androgen – independent prostate cancer. Below are some useful pieces of information about this type of cancer.
Basics of androgen- independent prostate cancer
Androgen-independent prostate cancer is also called castration-resistant cancer or hormone-refractory prostate cancer. It is the type of cancer that resumes growth despite the hormonal treatments that have been applied to curb it. Testosterone or androgen is a male hormone, which has been revealed to promote cancer of the prostate. Usually, this applies to men with advanced prostate cancer.
The first line treatment for advanced prostate cancer is usually the administration of hormone treatments of hormonal therapy.
This treatment could be in the form of surgery (by surgically removing the testicles which produce androgens) or by taking medications that could would reduce or inhibit the androgen level in the body.
After all these treatments have been applied, androgen-independent prostate cancer will still appear because it is no longer responsive to hormonal treatment.
How androgen-independent prostate cancer is treated
If you have androgen-independent prostate cancer, the doctor can recommend chemotherapy as first line of treatment. This is a treatment that involves the administration of some oral medications or injections to shrink and kill the cancerous cells in the prostate.
Drug like Docetaxel in combination with prednisone and thalidomide has shown to be effective in treating hormone-refractory prostate cancer. As a second line of treatment, Abiraterone (Zytiga) has shown to give positive results. So, if chemotherapy fails, Abiraterone can be used.
The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in the United States has approved Docetaxel and Abiraterone — in 2004 and 2011 respectively. The life expectancy after usage of these treatments includes 2 to 3 months for Docetaxel, and 4 to 5 months for Abiraterone. More so, less toxic side effects have been recorded from the use of these medications.
Conclusively, androgen-independent prostate cancer is stubborn type of prostate cancer. With effective treatments, men who have been diagnosed can achieve a median survival rate. Ask your doctor for more information on this type of prostate cancer.
Prostate cancer is the most commonly diagnosed type of cancer in US men. It is only second to Lung Cancer as the highest killer of cancer-related diseases for men in the US.
African Americans are more at risks of being diagnosed of this condition than other races like Caucasians and Hispanics. That said, it is important gear up with all relevant information about this disease.
There is lots of information about prostate cancer and one that will catch your interest is information about 4th Stage Prostate Cancer. This stage of prostate cancer is the most deadly and result to low survival rates of the patient. The following are more crucial information about the 4th Stage Prostate Cancer you really need to know.
For a start, prostate cancer is the type of cancer that slowly progresses from the cells of the prostate to other parts of the body. In some patients, the symptoms do not appear until after many years. The symptoms grow in stages based on the diagnosis done by the doctor, pathologist, or urologist.
The PSA level, Digital Rectal Exam, and tissue biopsy are the diagnostic procedures used to determine the staging of the cancer. Also readings from the Gleason Score are applied to determine which stage is the prostate cancer.
There are four stages to prostate cancer, Stages 1, 2, 3 & 4. The 4th stage is considered the most advanced stage of prostate cancer. In this stage, the following are very common:
- The cancer has spread beyond past the prostate gland to other vital organs in the body. This spread include nearby tissues like the bladder, rectum, pelvic wall, etc.
- The cancer has spread to bones and the spinal cord.
- The individuals with stage 4 prostate cancer experience pains in the lower abdomen, bones, and other parts of the body.
Treating the 4th Stage Prostate Cancer
Treatment of 4th Stage Prostate Cancer is done by hormone therapy, chemotherapy, and in combination with external beam radiation. The use of different drugs can still be applied as treatment option for this type of cancer.
How other stages of cancer spreads to 4th Stage Prostate Cancer
Cancer originating from the prostate can spread to other parts of the body through invasions of surrounding healthy tissue, through invasion of the lymph system and through invasion of veins and capillaries that travel from the blood to other places.
Finally, the 4th Stage Prostate Cancer is the most dangerous form of prostate cancer. You can check for more information about this stage from other articles in this website. Moreover, you can visit your doctor for more helpful information about this stage of cancer.
Many die from prostate cancer and this is usually due to the fact that their condition has spread to different parts of the body.
When prostate cancer metastasizes or spreads from the tissues of the prostate to other parts of the body affecting other important tissue that is often referred to as advanced prostate cancer.
It is important you get a general understanding of this type of prostate cancer and this is what this article will do.
What is advanced prostate cancer?
This is the type of that has spread beyond the prostate gland. There are two types of prostate cancer, these include: locally advanced prostate cancer and metastatic prostate cancer. Locally advanced prostate cancer occurs when the spread of the malignant tumor is outside the prostate gland, however, it still remains it still remains within the seminal vesicles and prostate region.
The symptoms associated with this type of spread include: urinary incontinence, hematuria (blood appearing in the urine), hemospermia (blood appearing in the sperm), and pain in the loin.
Metastatic advanced prostate cancer is that which has spread to regions that are far tissues or organs in the bone. This may take many years to happen but it is the most advanced stage of the condition and easily leads to low survival chance for the individual.
The associated symptoms of metastatic prostate cancer include: weight loss, fatigue, enlargement of the nymph node, lethargy, bone pain, pelvic pain, paraplegia, skin and bowel bleeding etc.
Treatment of advanced prostate cancer
If advanced prostate cancer has been diagnosed in a man, then it becomes necessary to start providing the most effective treatments. Hormone therapy is usually the first type of treatments to be applied. This treatment helps to block or inhibit the production of the hormone testosterone.
This is the type of hormone that encourages the growth of cancer cells. Hormone therapy can be applied in two ways: one is through Orchiectomy (surgical removal of the testicles) and the second approach is through the applications of hormone inhibiting medications (oral and injections).
Most types of advanced prostate cancer may become resistant to hormone therapy and there would be need for follow up treatments. These treatments include: palliative radiotherapy, chemotherapy, Bisphosphonates, Estrogen treatment, etc.
Finally, there are side effects associated with the use of a particular treatment for advanced prostate cancer. You should discuss with your doctor about these side effect.